"Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors ..." -- U.S. Constitution
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Endorsed by 2,110
State Legislators
In addition to 1,129 state legislative sponsors (shown above), 981 other legislators have cast recorded votes in favor of the National Popular Vote bill.
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Tom Golisano

Entrepreneur Tom Golisano Endorses National Popular Vote

Short Explanation
The National Popular Vote bill would guarantee a majority of the Electoral College to the presidential candidate who receives the most popular votes in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. The bill would reform the Electoral College so that the electoral vote in the Electoral College reflects the choice of the nation's voters for President of the United States.   more
11 Enactments
The National Popular Vote bill has been enacted into law in states possessing 165 electoral votes — 61% of the 270 electoral votes needed to activate the legislation.

  • Maryland - 10 votes
  • Massachusetts - 11
  • Washington - 12 votes
  • Vermont - 3 votes
  • Rhode Island - 4 votes
  • DC - 3 votes
  • Hawaii - 4 votes
  • New Jersey - 14 votes
  • Illinois - 20 votes
  • New York - 29 votes
  • California - 55 votes

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    Advisory Board
    John Anderson (R-I–IL)
    Birch Bayh (D–IN)
    John Buchanan (R–AL)
    Tom Campbell (R–CA)
    Tom Downey (D–NY)
    D. Durenberger (R–MN)
    Jake Garn (R–UT)
    What Do You Think
    How should we elect the President?
    The candidate who gets the most votes in all 50 states.
    The current Electoral College system.

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    What are the Major Shortcomings of the Current System of Electing the President?

    First, voters are effectively disenfranchised in two thirds of the states in presidential elections. Under the now-prevailing statewide winner-take-all rule, presidential candidates do not campaign in states in which they are far ahead because they do not receive any additional electoral votes by winning such states by a larger margin. Similarly, candidates ignore states where they are far behind because they have nothing to gain by losing those states by a smaller margin. Instead, presidential candidates concentrate their public appearances, organizational efforts, advertising, polling, and policy attention on states where the outcome of the popular vote is not a foregone conclusion. In practical political terms, a vote matters in presidential politics only if it is cast in a closely divided battleground state. To put it another way, the question of whether a voter matters in presidential politics depends on whether other voters in the voter's own state happen to be closely divided. In the five most recent presidential elections (1988–2004), about two thirds of the states have been non-competitive, including six of the nation's 10 most populous states (California, Texas, New York, Illinois, New Jersey, and North Carolina), 12 of the 13 least populous states; and the vast majority of medium-sized states.

    Second, the current system does not reliably reflect the nationwide popular vote. The statewide winner-take-all rule makes it possible for a candidate to win the Presidency without winning the most popular votes nationwide. This has occurred in one of every 14 presidential elections.

    Presidential elections in which the candidate with most popular votes did not win the Presidency
    Year Candidate with the most popular votes nationwide Candidate with the most electoral votes Popular votes for the candidate with the most popular votes Popular votes for the candidate who placed second in the popular vote Popular vote difference
    1824 Andrew Jackson John Q. Adams 151,271 113,122 38,149
    1876 Samuel J. Tilden Rutherford B. Hayes 4,288,191 4,033,497 254,694
    1888 Grover Cleveland Benjamin Harrison 5,539,118 5,449,825 89,293
    2000 Al Gore George W. Bush 50,992,335 50,455,156 537,179

    In the past six decades, there have been six presidential elections in which a shift of a relatively small number of votes in one or two states would have elected (and, of course, in 2000, did elect) a presidential candidate who lost the popular vote nationwide.

    Six problematic presidential elections in the past six decades
    Year Popular vote winner Electoral vote winner Nationwide popular vote lead Electoral votes received by nationwide popular vote winner Electoral votes received by electoral vote winner Popular vote switch that would have changed the outcome
    2004 Bush Bush 3,319,608 286 286 59,393 in Ohio
    2000 Gore Bush 537,179 267 271 269 in Florida
    1976 Carter Carter 1,682,970 297 297 5,559 in Ohio and 3,687 in Hawaii
    1968 Nixon Nixon 510,645 301 301 10,245 in Missouri and 67,481 in Illinois
    1960 Kennedy Kennedy 114,673 303 303 4,430 in Illinois and 4,782 in South Carolina
    1948 Truman Truman 2,135,570 303 303 3,554 in Ohio and 42,835 in New Jersey

    Third, not every vote is equal. The statewide winner-take-all rule creates variations of 1000-to-1 and more in the weight of a vote. For example, Gore won five electoral votes by carrying New Mexico by 365 popular votes in the 2000 presidential election, whereas Bush won five electoral votes by carrying Utah by 312,043 popular votes—an 855-to-1 disparity in the importance of a vote.

    In 2000, George W. Bush received 2,912,790 popular votes in Florida, whereas Al Gore received 2,912,353—a difference of 537 popular votes. Meanwhile, Gore had a nationwide lead of 537,179 popular votes. Gore's shortfall of 537 votes in Florida was less than 1/1000th of Gore's nationwide lead of 537,179 votes. However, under the winner-take-all rule in effect in Florida, Bush's 537-vote lead in Florida entitled him to all of Florida's 25 electoral votes and the Presidency.

    Nationwide popular election of the President is the only system that makes all states competitive, guarantees that the candidate with the most popular votes nationwide wins the Presidency, and makes every vote equal.

    For more details, see section 1.2 of the book Every Vote Equal: A State-Based Plan for Electing the President by National Popular Vote.

    Reform the Electoral College so that the electoral vote reflects the nationwide popular vote for President