"Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors ..." -- U.S. Constitution
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Endorsed by 2,110
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In addition to 1,129 state legislative sponsors (shown above), 981 other legislators have cast recorded votes in favor of the National Popular Vote bill.
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Entrepreneur Tom Golisano Endorses National Popular Vote

Short Explanation
The National Popular Vote bill would guarantee a majority of the Electoral College to the presidential candidate who receives the most popular votes in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. The bill would reform the Electoral College so that the electoral vote in the Electoral College reflects the choice of the nation's voters for President of the United States.   more
11 Enactments
The National Popular Vote bill has been enacted into law in states possessing 165 electoral votes — 61% of the 270 electoral votes needed to activate the legislation.

  • Maryland - 10 votes
  • Massachusetts - 11
  • Washington - 12 votes
  • Vermont - 3 votes
  • Rhode Island - 4 votes
  • DC - 3 votes
  • Hawaii - 4 votes
  • New Jersey - 14 votes
  • Illinois - 20 votes
  • New York - 29 votes
  • California - 55 votes

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    How should we elect the President?
    The candidate who gets the most votes in all 50 states.
    The current Electoral College system.

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    How Close Elections and Recounts be More Likely with a National Popular Vote for President?

    There would less opportunity for a close election under nationwide popular election of the President than the prevailing statewide winner-take-all system.

    A close outcome is considerably less likely in an election with a single pool of votes of 122,000,000 popular votes than in an election in which there are 51 separate pools and hence 51 separate opportunities for a close outcome. Moreover, a close outcome is considerably less likely in larger pool than a smaller one. Thus, a close outcome is less likely in a pool of 122,000,000 popular votes than in pools that are only 1/51th as large (about 2,400,000).

    The 2004 election was also not close in terms of the nationwide popular vote. President George W. Bush had a nationwide lead of about 3,500,000 popular votes. However, people had to wait until the morning of Wednesday November 3, 2004, to find out the outcome of the popular vote in Ohio. A switch of 59,388 popular votes in Ohio would have given Kerry all of Ohio's 20 electoral votes and the Presidency. Again, the illusion of closeness in 2004 resulted from the statewide winner-take-all system used in Ohio—not because the election was genuinely close on a nationwide basis.

    The 2000 presidential election is remembered as being close because George W. Bush's total of 2,912,790 popular votes in Florida was a mere 537 more than Gore's statewide total of 2,912,353. Under the statewide winner-take-all rule used in Florida, the 537-vote lead entitled Bush to all 25 of Florida's electoral votes. There was, however, nothing particularly close about the 2000 presidential election on a nationwide basis. Al Gore had a nationwide lead of 537,179 popular votes. Gore's nationwide lead was larger than, for example, Nixon's lead of 510,314 in 1968 and Kennedy's lead of 118,574 in 1960. The closeness of the 2000 presidential election was an artificial crisis manufactured by Florida's use of the statewide winner-take-all system. No one would even have considered a recount in 2000 if the nationwide popular vote had controlled the outcome. No one would have cared whether Bush did, or did not, carry Florida by 537 popular votes.

    In fact, no presidential election since the 19th century has been won by less than 118,000 votes on a nationwide basis. The closest presidential election since 1900 was the 1960 election in which John F. Kennedy led Richard M. Nixon by 118,574 popular votes nationwide. A margin of 118,574 popular votes is not particularly close and unlikely to be overturned by a recount. The 1960 election is remembered as being close because a switch of 4,430 votes in Illinois and a switch 4,782 votes in South Carolina would have given Nixon a majority of the electoral votes. If Nixon had carried both of those states, Kennedy would still have been ahead nationwide by almost 110,000 popular votes, but Nixon would have won the Presidency. In any case, the perceived closeness of the 1960 election was an illusion manufactured by the statewide winner-take-all system used in Illinois and South Carolina—not because the nationwide margin of 118,574 was ever likely to be overturned by any recount.

    Even the highly controversial 1876 presidential election was not close in terms of the nationwide popular vote. Democrat Samuel J. Tilden received 4,288,191 popular votes—254,694 more than the 4,033,497 popular votes received by Rutherford B. Hayes (a percentage lead greater than George W. Bush's 2004 lead of 2.8%). The 1876 election is remembered as being close because Hayes had extremely narrow popular-vote leads in several states, namely

    • 889 votes in South Carolina,
    • 922 votes in Florida,
    • 1,050 votes in Oregon,
    • 1,075 votes in Nevada, and
    • 2,798 votes in California.

    The closeness of the 1876 presidential election was an artificial crisis created by the statewide winner-take-all system.

    Of course, if there was a close division of 122,000,000 on a nationwide basis, it would be very likely that the vote count would simultaneously be close in a number of states.

    For more details, see section 9.2 of the book Every Vote Equal: A State-Based Plan for Electing the President by National Popular Vote.

    Reform the Electoral College so that the electoral vote reflects the nationwide popular vote for President